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This section contais general deepenings on precious gems 

AQUAMARINE
AMETHYST
DIAMOND
PEARL
GEM
THEY STEAL
SAPPHIRE

 

 

 

 

Limpid gem from the delicate colors that recall those of the smooth and cleaned up sky, smaller sister of the Emerald that together to Morganite and Eliodoro the family of the Beryl forms. The Aquamarine becomes every rarer day in the world of the jewelry shop, date the facility with which it can be replaced with nearly identical imitations in the external aspect; it must to its color spacing in you wrap of the blue that reflects all the shadings of the sea if he is only and unmistakable. The Aquamarine has always had a prominent role in the world of gems and sure identifiable in is manufatti of Hellenistic glittica and Roman, famous is the carving to cameo of " Julia daughter of the emperor Tito ", signed from EUODOS and conserved to the national library of Paris.

CUT: it is generally to facets of rectangular shape and octagonal, it comes used the cut to cabochon. The carving although it is a lot used in Brazil and India is not a lot known in Europe.

CURE IN THE USE: the Aquamarine is little resistant to hits, moreover if subordinate to heating can turn of color and assume one shading verdastra.

GEOGRAPHIC ORIGINS: the more important sitei are found in Brazil in the state of Minas Gerais and Madagascar, where the mine of Tangafeno produces to gems of a blue cargo a lot appreciated. Other states with worthy mines of famous are: India, Monzambico, Nanibia, Tanzania, Kenia. In Italy Aquamarines in val Codera near Sondrio and to the island of Elba can be found.

SYNTHESIS AND IMITATIONS: although it is possible to obtain the Aquamarine synthesis, they are little diffuse. As imitations come used two natural gems which: the Topaz and the blue Zircon.
Others two deceptive imitations much are: " too much beautiful " the synthetic Spinel at sight, lacks shadings, and the vitree pastes of blue color.

LEGENDS AND TRUTH: it is a powerful amulet for the sailors against the insidie of navigation. It's againts depression and if worn donates serenity.
In the litoterapy it is indicated like a cure-all for the liver diseases, disturbs gastritici and internal, it acts beneficially against the diseases of the sight, is the gem that propitious the fidelity between fiancčes and the union in the weddings. 


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Is the appreciated and valuable transparent variety more of the mineral Quartz. The Amethyst, whose color can vary from the pale violet to the intense violet and until the light red and "malva" violet, allows to satisfy the tastes personal of many persons. Its name comes from Greek " AMETHYSTOS " whom it means, not drunk, the gem would have the power to prevent to its owner to exaggerate in the drink.
The Amethyst is thought gem adapted to the nobility, but he is the clergy, than them it recognizes the highest degree than to be able, it is the gem that for tradition adorns the episcopal ring. Between the historical references more ancients are the mention in Bible, like one of twelve stones on which the names of the tribes of Israel were carved, and were ninth of the sacred stones that decorated the chest strap of the great clergyman of Israel.
Although that in nature the quartz crystals variety Amethyst can be found in large dimensions, the different coloration in the same crystal allows to use for the cut, solo a part of the mineral.

CUT: to facets, cabochon, recorded. When its transparency opaque and is various, small are gained carved objects to ornamentale scope.

CURE IN THE USE: the Amethyst is not a fragile gem therefore not is particular recommendations for the use, only the its point weak person is the sensibility to the heat, if subordinate strongly heating can change of color and become yellow or incolore, gives not more rimediabile.

GEOGRAPHIC ORIGINS: disseminating is a mineral much on the globe; Brazil is today the nation where the greater crude amount of valid is gained for the cut. Other mines with good production are: India, Madagascar, Soviet Union, Zambia, Czechoslovakia. A curiosity of the nature that the consumer is getting passionate, is the " GEODI OF AMETHYST ", large cliff blocks quarry in which the inner walls they are upholstered of crystals in the typical shape to pyramidal tip.

SYNTHESIS AND IMITATIONS: the synthetic Quartz comes produced from the beginning of the century in great amounts for industrial use and a lot flows on the world of the jewelry shop. As imitation is used of the synthetic Corundum, doppiette of Vetro-Granato and naturally of vitree pastes.

LEGENDS AND TRUTH: the Amethyst is one of great magical gems and according to Plinio: if carved with the moon and sun, hung to the neck with hairs of Cinocefalo (baboon) and piume of rondine, protect from the witchcraft and the magic. Between its virtues, the protection from the hail, the storm and the plague is numbered. In the ancient litoterapy it came particularly indicated adapted in order to recover the gotta, the head pain, the nevrastemy, cured the gozzo, the heart pain, the affections of the spleen.


 

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This term anciently identified a mineral that escaped to all the acquaintances of the time; for its exceptional hardness it could not be worked and no acid could corrode it. The word Diamond, comes from Greek " ADAMAS " whom it means invincible and it suggests the eternity; from these sideboards, the Greeks thought that the Diamonds were of star fragments fallen on the earth. The Diamonds practically exist from always, have been formed to remarkable depth under the land crust, in conditions of temperature and pressure the many high and (in some particular situations) vulcaniche eruptions have them capacities to the surface. The Diamonds can be found are in primary mines that secondary: the primary mines are the famous vulcans fireplaces sayings " PIPES " in English language, the fireplaces are formed from called cliff layers gray-bluastra " blue cliff or Kimberlite ", the secondary mines are mostly of alluvial type. During the centuries the Diamonds have been eroded from the traditions of Kimberlite and transported, before from the rain and then from alluviums of the rivers, also to remarkable distances from the point of the eruption. 
There was once... the history of the Diamond begins in India, more than 2800 years ago. 
India remained the only producer to the world until the discovery of the mines in Brazil happened in 1725. With the increased availability, the monopoly of the aristocrats ended and with the commerce in expansion new purchasers, new the rich ones of the bourgeois class emerged. In 1866, other mines of Diamonds in South Africa were discoveries and were then that the true fever of the Diamonds began, carrying this wonderful gem to the capacity of all. Today the four countries, main producers of crude Diamonds are: Australia, the Zaire, Botswana and the former Soviet Union. The South Africa, the Nanibia, Angola, Brazil and other countries Africans follow give the production close. The mines of the South Africa still stop a supremacy , the finding of the larger Diamond of the world " the CULLINAN " that to the origin weighed 3106 carats very. Until XV the century, only i king wore Diamonds like force symbol, courage and honor, but with passing
of the years they have become the gift of love for excellence; it was said in fact that the arrows of " CUPIDO " had the tip in Diamond, in order better to break the heart of the mistress. A last curiosity, the tradition for which the women they wear the ring to the ring finger of the left hand, goes back to the time of the Egyptians, they believed that the love vein corrected directly from the heart to the tip of the ring finger of the left hand. 

The Diamond is a wonderful gem whose mystery has inspired myths and legends; the fascination that emanates capture the dreams and the ambitions of every man or woman that covets its posses. The uncolored, limpid and alive Diamond like the water of the torrents, it’s beautiful than all the other gems. The red, blue, yellow flares of the purest light and greens are ignited when the light white woman falls on the facets and the bundles of reflected light are like swords that hit our eyes, but that they attract for their uncommon quality. In this game of contrasting colors Diamonds FANCY COLORS, " the rarest gems " in the colors become part also: red, rose, greens, blue and yellows, especially when the color is decided. The etimology of the name Diamond, from adamas=undomable Greek, finds reference in the " undomability " of the stone, why the ancients did not know a matter that was able to work it. Also the Bible finds this characteristic and in a passage law: I render your hard forehead like the Diamond. The discovery of the mines in south Africa is relatively recent; it happened in 1866 and with the exploitation of the mines and the abundant amount of mineral to disposition it is begun was modern of the Diamond. With new techniques of cut in 1919 mathematician TOLKWOSKY gave life to the called modern cut: to diamond.

CUT: the ancients cuts tried to recover the maximum losing weight from the crude one to of the " brilliance " of the Diamond, today from the crude one it is attempted to put in evidence the simmetry and “fire" of the Diamond. 

CURE IN THE USE: since the Diamond is the harder natural mineral that is known, it resists very well to the usury, but he is enough fragile and it can break falling or receiving a strong blow.

GEOGRAPHIC ORIGINS: every day with the technical new of prospecting new mines in every part of the globe are found, while the south Africa and Botswana emerge for the quality, the Zaire, Russia and lately Australia emerges for the gained amount of crude.

SYNTHESIS AND IMITATIONS: the first syntheses of the Diamond come realized in 1950, the obtained crystals are small and the procedure turns out expensive too much, in 1970 the General Electric Co announces the synthesis in pezzature of approximately a carat. Today it is known for sure that they have been immesse on the market synthetic gems of green color pale, most difficult to distinguish. All the incolori stones are natural that produced in laboratory, they come used in order to imitate the Diamond; some can be only recognized with analysis executed from experts gemmologyst. 

LEGENDS AND TRUTH: The Tavernier historian with its continuous one trips on lands then known, became one of the greater experts of stones of the antiquity, speaks to us for first about a famous Diamond; the defined KOH-I-NOOR also " light mountain ". According to the legend the origins of the finding would go back to the age in which Of they came down between the common mortals. The first data on this stone go back to the 1304 in a document that indicates the owner in the ragiā of Malwa, seem that in origin the crude one weighed 600 carats, but are not sure, unfortunately are not known not even when it was cut for before the time. When it entered to make part of the treasure of Great Britain weighed 186 carats and it was cut to the ancient Indiana way. After the exposure of London of the 1851 determined Queen of England a new cut for modify the aspect and the stone passed from 186 carats current to the 108,93. In 1937 it was mounted on the crown of Queen Elisabetta and from then it can be seen exposed between the treasures of the tower of London. 

 

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Femminility, beauty, aesthetic, rarity; the Pearl!. Incomparable jewel of the ocean, round or pear-shaped, crushed, smooths down or white woman or rose, grey cream or, with shadings of blue, green, red color, but above all All this emerges the mythical " BLACK PEARL "., it describes alone in minimal it leave the characteristics that identify Pearls of the seas of the south or more commonly defined " SOUTH-SEA ". Polynesia, with the greatest amount of atolls emerged, is lend very well to the cultivation of the molluschi from which collections will come Pearls of great dimensions, typical characteristic of the South-Sea Pearls. The clam more commonly used in the cultivation is the Pinctada Margaritifera, catches up in adult age the dimension of 18-20 centimeters of diameter and can produce pearls cultivated with a medium diameter of 15-25 millimeters. The colors of pearls are not determinable solos from the clam, but also from one various
concentration of substances disciolte in the water, is true instead, than sure varieties of molluschi they are in a position to producing Pearls with an always equal color in greater amount, respect to other colors. The Pinctada Margaritifera variety " CUMINGI " has greater possibilities to produce Pearls with colors that vary from the green-black one to black the shining one, however is a rarity if the black color is accompanied to the spherical shape. The dimension of cultivated Pearls always is determined from the dimension of the nucleus that will be gone to graft, and in minor
measure, to the time of cultivation that very rarely exceeds the two, maximum three years. The most common imitations of Pearls today sold on the market, use the term " PEARL " in fraudulent way and with the single scope to trick the buyer, eccone some examples: bathtub pearls, are constructed with calcium carbonate cores that come covered dipping the sphere in containing bathtubs varnishes to the nitrocellulose one. Pearls of Majorca, are littles ball of painted glass or china externally with synthetic varnishes, and the famous guarantees with
written; authentic pearls of Majorca, only guarantee that they have been constructed to Majorca. Pearls of Kobe: it is the term that identifies the imitations in kind. The Pearl, could be defined also gem of the beautiful song, why in an ancient prescription it is indicated of polverizzare the pearl in the milk ones, this mixture would have the ability to keep good the voice to the singers, moreover it stimulates the vital energy and it is appreciated
like aphrodisiac, it sharpens the sight, calm the heart and drives away the anxieties. 

Also the Bible cites this gem, is in the old one that in the new Testament, " the reign of skies is similar to a merchant who tries beautiful Pearls, and found a Pearl of great value, goes, it sells how much has and the purchase " (New Test. Matteo 13.45,46). In this step the concept is enclosed that in every time the Pearl has provoked the bramosia of the men whom they have intentional posses, to wear of its splendor, to have of its fascination. Much admiration derives from the fact that every Pearl is various from the other and the greater distinction is in the light, the splendor, the east that each one Pearl possesses and in which the mysterious life resides.
Also today in a world in which science, the technological searches are cause of deep transformations, the Pearl provoke always an attraction for its oneness.
From when the natural process of formation of Pearls is uncovered, the man has tried to make artificially, creating in zones protect from the pollution, the cultivation of Pearls. When he speaks himself about natural or cultivated Pearl, it must remember that the gem however has been developed and grown to the particular inside mollusc..

CURE IN THE USE: the Pearls are fragile and can easy damage to the contact with other jewels. They fear an atmosphere excessive sand bank, than ago to evaporate their water content with consequent appearance of squamature. The acids, the soap, shampi and the scents that normally are used for the own one clean, do not have to come to contact of Pearls why they corrode to them and the sweat of the epidermide that it has been deposited on the Pearl goes removed passing after the use a dry and soft cloth; it is good norm to once replace the wire to the year. 

GEOGRAPHIC ORIGINS: the origin zones anciently notes are: Persian Gulf, mar Red, India, the Philippines, Malaysia, Tahiti. With the advent of Pearls cultivated, Japan makes the lion's share with the 70/80% of the world-wide production. The seas of the south, even if in smaller amount cultivate Pearls that are distinguished for a greater dimension, while in the islands of Tahiti the mythical black Pearls are found. 

IMITATIONS: the Pearls come imitated with spheres of glass or plastic covered of " east essence ", a substance constituted from macerated flakes of fish. The most common imitations are called: pearls of Majorca, pearls of Kobe, pearls of bathtub and the terms like: semicultivated pearls of short cultivation, pearls, come always used in order to draw in deceit the purchaser. 


LEGENDS AND TRUTH: Elisabetta of Austria, said Sissi, in secret wanted to dip its wonderful Pearl necklace in waters of the bay of Corfų for giving beauty, but the voice scattered and a lot was secret the place that after the killing of the Queen, the necklace more was not found again. Symbol of the love and the wedding, near the Greeks was sacred to Aphrodite. Anciently it was believed that the Pearl rendered chaste, prudent, tolerant, patients. In Japan they are attributed still today, numerous medicinal virtues to Pearls, in the pharmacies are in sale pills of made up of calcium Pearls.

 

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UNLIVING CRYSTAL WITHOUT SPIRIT 

In order to better deepen the concept as soon as sketched it must be left from the presupposed one that the tradition alloy the minerals or " GEMS " to the four base elements which: fire, earth, air, water. The " powers of ancients gems " are how much the same man, the popular culture have classified in the course of the centuries to precious stones, a role of primary importance, the merit is in the supposed hidden powers and the emanation of beneficial vibrations that every gem is in a position to dispensing to that they wear. The aesthetic fascination is enclosed in the infinite range of colors that every gem, risplendente of own light, creates in who watches it and the perceived feelings are beyond all the mode ancient or modern. The four elements that enter in the mineral formation every, varying in amounts and qualities, contribute to render every gem unique, it is from the man that give the nature. 


The element " FIRE " is legacy to gems of red color, orange-colored and yellow and it identifies with the blood and the sun. Steal, stone of the happiness, is able to assure succeeded and Victoria, in the ancient pharmacopoeia and litoterapy prevented the plague, regolarizzava the digestive function and reinforced the anemic ones. The red Grenades were able to drive away demons and terrifying dreams, cured the tachicardie and reinforced the heart. 


The red Coral although is not a mineral but, an organic substance, must its fortune, is to its terapeutiche property that to those magicalones. It was advised to the heart weak people and brain and in who wore it maintained arouses the creative ability. As amulet comes today used also against " malocchio ".

" the EARTH " stones are of color gray, tawny or black. Calcedonio-Onice was searched, why in some rarest cases " magical eye " could become the famous amulet that had the power to donate the peace between the spouses instilling they optimism. Obsidian as " earth " stone was used in order to construct sacred objects in a position to holding the malignant spirits far away. The Aztecs used Obsidian in order to cure wounded plagues and endured in combat.

" AIR " stones are of the blue, blue or uncolor. The Lapis-lazulis, a lot used in order to construct " scarabei of the heart ", was a powerful amulet, riproduce fidelity and marital unions, in litoterapy came used as remedy to the apopletic strokes and reinforced the sight. The Sapphire, symbol of divine justice, hope and concord, conferred courage and audacity, sovereign remedy for the diseases of the eyes, cured and healed the plagues of the skin. The Diamond, from is always considered sing of the truth and the honor. According to naturalist " PLINIO " it calmed the delirium excesses and it removed the nocturnal nightmare, it was much assets in curing the epilepsy.

" the WATER " stones are of green color, blue-green or of silver color like the moon stone. The Emerald bearer of positive forces, helps the sight and the spirit, cured in dear way the ocular fevers, coliche and diseases. The Aquamarine was indicated for helping the fidelity between fiancčes, helping to exceed the crises of the brace and like good gem came badly advised against of teeth and the diseases of the liver. 


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The beauty of the color " red blood " makes of Steal the Queen of gems, symbol of the passion and fire that burn; precious stone between rarest is one, more wished and loved. A variety that we could define, rarity in the rarity, is the Steals " STARFISH ", but only little gems introduce this particularitity that is evidenced on gems cut to cabochon that seen from the high to reflected light, they show an luminous star to six or twelve beams that moves along the surface curves moving the gem.
The light game particularly beautiful, has had to a said phenomenon asterism, caused from the reflection, the refraction and the dispersion of the light on particular inclusions of the gem. The color of varied Steal from the red arterial blood oxygenated (the mythical " blood of pigeon "), to the red one purple, the carminio, the redone, the red-orange and the rose, even if this tonality not always comes accepted as own of Steal why it would be from defining Corundum more correctly rose. 

CUT: the better stones are cut to facets, in round shape oval or. " the INDIAN " cut is one before rudimentale sbozzatura of gems on the extraction place, but it follows always an only commercial criterion: that one to lose minor the possible weight. 

CURE IN THE USE: he is not fragile but, as all the gems of elevated value, demand attention.

GEOGRAPHIC ORIGINS: the Steals Birmani, especially those recovered in the zone of Mogok beautifulst and are famous. the Thailandia and the lucky person Ceylon today Sri Lanka (find much species of mineral actions to become gems), are the greater producers of Steals.
They are found in discreet amounts also in Pakistan, Kenia, Cambodia and Russia.

SYNTHESIS AND IMITATIONS: the synthesis of Steal goes back to the ight hundred, and from then always new synthetic stones have been looked at on the market, more and more perfect, much difficult to recognize for the profane one. The imitations are: in red glass, or natural gems which: the Grenades, the Tormaline and the Spinels.

LEGENDS AND TRUTH: in ancient Indian legends, one said that the dwelling of the God of the sun was upholstered of paved Steals and of Emeralds. Between the many virtues attributed to Steal is that one to make to stop the boiling of the water, to make to acquire lordships and dominions to its owner, to keep good the fruits from the storms, to calm the temper and protect from seductions. 

 

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Every gem has its color, its light, its vitality, but if we add all ne the blue of the Sapphire exits. The Sapphire is the gem, than between the four large ones, it introduces the extended range more than tonality and shadings. Between the beautifulr colors in absolute it goes remembered the blue of the Sapphires of Kashmir, a velvet blue like one caress, of exceptional rarity. Going back the ancients times, the Sapphire for its celestial color comes mentioned which symbol of Christ. The Bible in a passage says: " it will reconstruct to you over foundations of Sapphires ", proclama Isaia to Gerusalem, (Isaia, 54-12). Today in order to indicate a Sapphire from the exceptional color it is defined: " MARY S MANTLE ". The Sapphire is one of the little gems that through the various shading varying from a nearly black blue, (typical color of the Sapphires Australian) to a blue much blue luminosity nearly, (typical the Sapphires coming from from the Sri Lanka) can be indicated the origin of the gem.

CUT: every type of cut is concurred, generally to facets and the more diffuse shapes are those round ovals and. The cut to cabochon comes used on stones many including or with gems that introduce asterism.

CURE IN THE USE: he is not fragile, being much hard not ruin during the normal use, in the hardness scale is to according to place after the Diamond.

GEOGRAPHIC ORIGINS: given the habit to classify the value of the Sapphires through the origin and not sharing the method, the localities of the mines will come indicated in alphabetical order, remembering that in every mine it can be found of gems of exceptional beauty; Australia, Birmania, Montana (U.s.a.), Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Thailandia.

SYNTHESIS AND IMITATIONS: To the beginning of our century the synthetic Sapphire was already produced; currently called synthesis Verneuil, enough recognizable is the much disseminated use of one from the gemmologyst, much less used the fusing synthesis for given to the greater cost of production, but more difficult the acknowledgment. Lately they have been put on the market a lot of of dealt carats of Sapphire for termodiffusion, a treatment in order to retrieve stones with insufficient qualities, the acknowledgment of this treatment is possible single with the taken apart gem. The imitations are generally of the glasses or of the doppiette, these last ones are easy findable on constructed jewels
before the last great war. 


LEGENDS AND TRUTH: anciently one was attributed to the Sapphire curious property; perhaps that one to free the prisoners from the stocks, if worn or better if scoured on the chains, this property comes from its hardness, able to record the iron. In the ancient pharmacopoeia the Sapphire was a cure-all for the diseases of the skin, distortions and bruise.
 

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